Jean Lamarck (1744-1829)

Answer:

this person believed geographic or climatic changes pressure life forms to adapt.

Culture Circles

Answer:

cultural traits originated at multiple sources.

Heliocentric Diffusion

Answer:

All cultural traits originate from a single source

Degeneration was a religious explanation
Progressivism was a scientific explanation

Answer:

2 Answers: What Were The Different Explanations Of Human Differences?

Degenerationism

Answer:

Idea that we were all once civilized, but after dispersing (Tower of Babel) some deteriorated while others remained civilized.

1