Although Skinner and other behaviorists did not think that it was necessary to refer to thoughts or expectations when explaining human learning, findings from experiments with rats suggest otherwise. Which of the following findings suggests that cognitive

  1. Children learn from observing their parents, and exhibit the learning immediately.

  2. Rats do NOT seem to develop a cognitive map of mazes.

  3. Learning is merely the association of a response with a consequence.

  4. Rats appear to experience latent learning while exploring mazes.