The importance of schemas was most clearly highlighted by

  1. Erikson's psychosocial development theory.

  2. Piaget's cognitive development theory.

  3. Haidt's social intuitionist theory.

  4. Kohlberg's moral development theory.



A correlation of +.70 between children's physical height and their popularity among their peers indicates that

  1. higher levels of popularity among one's peers is associated with greater physical height in children.

  2. there is no statistically significant relationship between children's height and their popularity.

  3. being unusually short or tall has a negative impact on children's popularity.

  4. children's height has no causal impact on their popularity.



Mr. Brown has gathered evidence that the weight of grade school students correlates positively with their reading skill. Before he uses this evidence to conclude that body weight enhances reading ability, Mr. Brown should first be reminded that

  1. events often seem more probable in hindsight.

  2. random sequences of events often don't look random.

  3. sampling extreme cases leads to false generalizations.

  4. we often exaggerate the extent to which others share our opinions.

  5. correlation does not prove causation.