practices that are aimed at anticipating, controlling, and preventing dangerous activities; these practices reflect the beliefs that accidents are not random and that injuries can be made less harmful if proper controls are in place
Primary- Actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstance, such as injury, disease, or abuse Secondary- actions that avert harm in a high-risk situation, such as stopping a car before it hits a pedestrian Tertiary- Actions, such as immediate and effective medical treatment, that are taken after an adverse event (such as illness of injury) occurs and that are aimed at reducing the harm or preventing disability
involves building preventative measures into the everyday environment, focuses on macrosystem and exosystem ex.) stable neighborhoods; family cohesion; income equality; and any measure that decreases financial instability, family isolation, and teenage parenthood
measures aimed at reducing damage after injury has occurred -ex. laws against leaving the scene of an automobile accident, improved emergency room procedures, etc -includes everything intended to reduce harm when maltreatment has already occurred. Reporting and substantiating abuse are the first steps. Arrange help or remove child from family. Hospitalization is a sign of failure.