signifier/signified

Answer:

Signifier =>The word or symbol to we use to represent something
Signified => That to which we are referring to [the word or sound of "Tree" (signifier) to the object or concept when we hear "Tree" (signified)] - The object or idea itself is the 'referent'.

The 2 Rules of Language (according to Saussure)

Answer:

1) the relationship between signifier and signified is arbitrary ///// 2) language is a system of differences

signifier/signified is arbitrary (Rule of Language)

Answer:

There's no reason the letters C-A-T (or the sound the word makes) produce exactly the image of the small, domesticated animal with fur, four legs and a tail in our minds. It is a result of "convention".

Meaning is

Answer:

realtional - NOT referrential

Differential (Rule of Language)

Answer:

One thing is defined simply as being different from another. Language is a "system of interdependent terms (whose value) results solely from the simultaneous presence of others" - so words mean nothing without the other words around them. You can't have a "stand-alone" element.

death of the author (Barthes)

Answer:

Readers must separate a literary work from its creator in order to liberate the text from "interpretive tyranny". "Language itself can speak once the author is removed."

contingent (Barthes)

Answer:

not logically necessary;

The author has a history, and is therefore contingent

paradigmatic (or associative) relations

Answer:

are absent from discourse and are not supported by linearity. (random things that come to mind during a conversation that are unrelated)

syntagmatic relations

Answer:

are present in discourse and are linear - they occur between a fixed number of terms in a definite order

linguistic turn

Answer:

A shift in philosophy that took place in the early 20th century from an emphasis on knowledge and ideas to an emphasis on language. Provided the ground work for STRUCTURALISM and POSTSTRUCTURALISM.