Alexander of Russia

Answer:

-started the modernization in Russia
-freed the serfs in 1861
-peasants received half the land
-bondage abolished
-established a local government (zemstov)
-railroad production boomed
-territorial expansion to south and east
-assassinated by Radicals (Anarchists)

Nicholas I

Answer:

(1825-1855) Russian Tsar that succeeded Alexander; he strengthened the secret police and the bureaucracy. He was also willing to use Russian troops to crush revolutions (example: Decembrist Revolution), as he greatly feared them. He made liberal reforms and improved conditions for serfs.

Russian traditional values of Nicholas

Answer:

Orthodoxy, Autocracy and Nationality

What country tried to lead an uprising against Russian rule in 1830 only to be defeated, its constitution cancelled and its territory taken to be part of Russia?

Answer:

Poland

"sickman of Europe"

Answer:

name given to the dying, decaying Ottoman Empire, that lacked an Industrial Revolution

Why did Nicholas I want the area under Ottoman control?

Answer:

Nicholas I believed himself to be the protector of the eastern Orthodox Christians in the empire and he wanted to have control of the Straits of Dardanelles and Bosphorus and the connections between the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and beyond.

The first Geneva Convention of 1868

Answer:

A result of the horrible horrendous wounds suffered during the Crimean War and the battle of Solferino. It called on countries to refrain from using weapons that caused terrible wounds and for humane treatment of enemy combatants

Peace of Paris of 1856

Answer:

Ended the Crimean War. Russia gives up territory, cannot maintain warships on the Black Sea. Romania and Serbia become self-governing territories under European protection. France, Britain and Austria begin to move in increasingly through "free trade" policies and protection of Christians on the sultan's territory.

Janissary

Answer:

Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826.

Mehmed Ali

Answer:

founded modern Egypt. Born in Cavala, was a Muslim. 1805, recognized by Ottomans as governor of Egypt for 46 years. created modern army by bringing in specialists from US, used Egyptian peasants in draft; his dynasty would last until 1952 Egyptian Revolution