-started the modernization in Russia -freed the serfs in 1861 -peasants received half the land -bondage abolished -established a local government (zemstov) -railroad production boomed -territorial expansion to south and east -assassinated by Radicals (Anarchists)
(1825-1855) Russian Tsar that succeeded Alexander; he strengthened the secret police and the bureaucracy. He was also willing to use Russian troops to crush revolutions (example: Decembrist Revolution), as he greatly feared them. He made liberal reforms and improved conditions for serfs.
Nicholas I believed himself to be the protector of the eastern Orthodox Christians in the empire and he wanted to have control of the Straits of Dardanelles and Bosphorus and the connections between the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and beyond.
A result of the horrible horrendous wounds suffered during the Crimean War and the battle of Solferino. It called on countries to refrain from using weapons that caused terrible wounds and for humane treatment of enemy combatants
Ended the Crimean War. Russia gives up territory, cannot maintain warships on the Black Sea. Romania and Serbia become self-governing territories under European protection. France, Britain and Austria begin to move in increasingly through "free trade" policies and protection of Christians on the sultan's territory.
founded modern Egypt. Born in Cavala, was a Muslim. 1805, recognized by Ottomans as governor of Egypt for 46 years. created modern army by bringing in specialists from US, used Egyptian peasants in draft; his dynasty would last until 1952 Egyptian Revolution