910

Answer:

the date that a reform movement began at a monastery in Cluny, France, and spread quickly throughout the Roman church

Cistercians

Answer:

One of the most influential of the reforming monastic orders; adopted lives of seclusion and strict discipline

Bernard of Clairvaux

Answer:

the most zealous member of the Cistercians who made the order popular

College of Cardinals

Answer:

Created in 1059, this was created so that churchmen rather than Roman nobles or German kings could choose the popes

1077

Answer:

the date that Henry "surrendered" and stood barefoot in the snow for three days, waiting for the pope to speak with him

mendicant orders

Answer:

("begging"); renounced worldly possessions, and pledged themselves to lives of poverty; members of these orders were called friars; begged for daily sustenance

Francis of Assisi

Answer:

the founder of the Franciscan order

Dominic

Answer:

founded the Dominican order; contemporary of Francis of Assisi

dukes

Answer:

local tribal leaders of Germany (East Frankland) who assumed the role of protectors against the Magyars

duchy

Answer:

Each duke ruled like a king in his own territory, called a ______