The predictability of an association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) facilitates an organism's ability to expect or anticipate the occurrence of the US. This fact is most likely to be highlighted by a _____________ p

  1. neuroscience

  2. behaviorist

  3. Pavlovian

  4. cognitive

Answer:

d

All of the following are Pavlov's major contributions to the field of psychology EXCEPT:

  1. his methods demonstrated the importance of subjective judgments.

  2. principles of learning apply across species.

  3. the discipline of psychology could be based on objective laboratory methods.

  4. significant psychological phenomena can be studied objectively.

Answer:

a

In classical conditioning, this is the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.

  1. neutral stimulus

  2. unconditioned response (UR)

  3. conditioned/neutral stimulus (CS)

  4. conditioned response (CR)

Answer:

b

John B. Watson believed that psychology should be the science of:

  1. genetic predispositions.

  2. cognitive processes.

  3. observable behavior.

  4. emotional outcomes.

Answer:

c

"Tina is a seven-year-old girl who frequently witnesses her father's anger and physically abusive acts on her mother. In her room she is playing with her toys and begins to yell at them and hit them for ""being so stupid and not having dinner ready."" Her

  1. classical learning.

  2. observational learning.

  3. reinforced learning.

  4. observational conditioning.

Answer:

b

If a child is watching a favorite sibling getting scolded for misbehavior, which type of neuron is likely to be activated in an empathetic response to this observation?

  1. interneuron

  2. motor neuron

  3. sensory neuron

  4. mirror neuron

Answer:

d

Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children's behavior?

  1. Skinner

  2. Pavlov

  3. Bandura

  4. Watson

Answer:

c

Jack finds it extremely difficult to pull himself away from the blackjack table. He keeps thinking he will break even as the next hand will be his winning one. This is a ________ schedule.

  1. fixed-ratio

  2. fixed-interval

  3. variable-ratio

  4. variable-interval

Answer:

c

During a typical morning, Colin will check the clock more frequently as the time for his regularly scheduled lunch break approaches. In this case, Colin's clock checking behavior is reinforced on a ________ schedule.

  1. fixed-ratio

  2. fixed-interval

  3. variable-ratio

  4. variable-interval

Answer:

b

Although Skinner and other behaviorists did not think that it was necessary to refer to thoughts or expectations when explaining human learning, findings from experiments with rats suggest otherwise. Which of the following findings suggests that cognitive

  1. Children learn from observing their parents, and exhibit the learning immediately.

  2. Rats do NOT seem to develop a cognitive map of mazes.

  3. Learning is merely the association of a response with a consequence.

  4. Rats appear to experience latent learning while exploring mazes.

Answer:

d