The importance of schemas was most clearly highlighted by

  1. Erikson's psychosocial development theory.

  2. Piaget's cognitive development theory.

  3. Haidt's social intuitionist theory.

  4. Kohlberg's moral development theory.



A defense attorney emphasizes to a jury that her client works full-time, supports his family, and enjoys leisure-time hobbies. Although none of this information is relevant to the trial, it is designed to make the defendant appear to be a typical member o

  1. confirmation bias.

  2. functional fixedness.

  3. belief perseverance.

  4. the representativeness heuristic.



A correlation of +.70 between children's physical height and their popularity among their peers indicates that

  1. higher levels of popularity among one's peers is associated with greater physical height in children.

  2. there is no statistically significant relationship between children's height and their popularity.

  3. being unusually short or tall has a negative impact on children's popularity.

  4. children's height has no causal impact on their popularity.



Mr. Brown has gathered evidence that the weight of grade school students correlates positively with their reading skill. Before he uses this evidence to conclude that body weight enhances reading ability, Mr. Brown should first be reminded that

  1. events often seem more probable in hindsight.

  2. random sequences of events often don't look random.

  3. sampling extreme cases leads to false generalizations.

  4. we often exaggerate the extent to which others share our opinions.

  5. correlation does not prove causation.



It has been suggested that men in all cultures tend to marry women younger than themselves because men are genetically predisposed to seek female features associated with youthful fertility. This suggestion best illustrates

  1. social learning theory.

  2. behavior genetics.

  3. Freudian psychology.

  4. an evolutionary perspective.



Brain scans indicate that professional violinists have a larger-than-normal region of the motor cortex devoted to control of left finger movements. This best illustrates

  1. hemispherectomy.

  2. tomography.

  3. aphasia.

  4. plasticity.

  5. the alien hand syndrome.



Employing the single word “HOMES” to remember the names of North America's five Great Lakes best illustrates the use of

  1. the “peg-word” system.

  2. the method of loci.

  3. the serial position effect.

  4. a mnemonic device.

  5. implicit memory.



In order to monitor the electrical activity in the brain that is triggered by hearing one's own name, researchers would make use of a(n)

  1. MRI.

  2. PET scan.

  3. EEG.

  4. CT scan.



“I don't care whether you want to wash the dishes, you will do so because I said so!” This statement is most representative of a(n) ________ parenting style.

  1. preconventional

  2. authoritative

  3. formal operational

  4. authoritarian



When Mr. Morgan began to misinterpret his harmless symptoms of autonomic nervous system arousal as indicative of an impending heart attack, he suffered an unusually intense level of fear. His emotional suffering is best understood in terms of the

  1. catharsis hypothesis.

  2. James-Lange theory.

  3. relative deprivation principle.

  4. adaptation-level principle.

  5. two-factor principle.