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If they live in a community with _______ income inequality, people at _______ income level are at a greater risk of death.

  1. high; only a low

  2. high; every

  3. low; only a low

  4. low; every



With his concern for “mental orthopedics,” Alfred Binet would have been most enthusiastic about

  1. eugenics.

  2. factor analysis.

  3. predictive validity.

  4. Head Start programs.

  5. the normal curve.



The moon illusion refers to our tendency to perceive the moon as unusually ________ when it is ________.

  1. large; near the horizon

  2. large; high in the sky

  3. bright; near the horizon

  4. bright; high in the sky



Maintaining one's conceptions even after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited is known as

  1. the representativeness heuristic.

  2. belief perseverance.

  3. confirmation bias.

  4. functional fixedness.

  5. the availability heuristic.



Vocal sounds that are not included in one's native language first begin to disappear from usage during the ________ stage of language development.

  1. one-word

  2. two-word

  3. telegraphic

  4. babbling



Mark was paralyzed below the waist following an accident and is now genitally unresponsive to erotic sexual images. Mark has most clearly suffered damage to his

  1. limbic system.

  2. sensory cortex.

  3. interneurons.

  4. endocrine system.

  5. motor neurons.



Immanuel Kant and John Locke would have been most likely to disagree about the extent to which perception is influenced by

  1. cultural experience.

  2. retinal disparity.

  3. change blindness.

  4. relative luminance.



Max is so used to thinking that a tough competitive style of behavior is the best way to impress others that he fails to recognize that the most effective way to impress his girlfriend is with cooperative tenderness. Max's oversight best illustrates

  1. a fixation.

  2. the framing effect.

  3. the representativeness heuristic.

  4. functional fixedness.

  5. overconfidence.



Activation of the sympathetic nervous system ________ salivation and ________ blood pressure.

  1. increases; increases

  2. decreases; decreases

  3. increases; decreases

  4. decreases; increases



People are often unable to come up with the simple solutions to some of the three-jugs problems presented in the text because they repeat more complicated solutions that worked in the past. This best illustrates the dynamics of

  1. the framing effect.

  2. functional fixedness.

  3. the availability heuristic.

  4. artificial intelligence.

  5. a mental set.