Findings from Garcia's research on taste aversion in rats indicate that:

  1. rats are more likely to develop aversions to taste than they are to sights or sounds.

  2. the unconditioned stimulus (US) MUST immediately follow the conditioned stimulus (CS).

  3. rats are more likely to develop aversions sights or sounds than they are to taste.

  4. organisms do NOT have biological predispositions when learning associations.

Answer:

a

Walter was bitten by a dog when he was five-years-old. To this day, he will not pet dogs; however, he will pet cats. This reaction best illustrates:

  1. generalization.

  2. an unconditioned response (UR).

  3. operant conditioning.

  4. discrimination

Answer:

d

Secondary reinforcers are powerful tools for shaping behavior because they have become associated with primary reinforcers. Which of the following is NOT a secondary reinforcer?

  1. grades

  2. praise

  3. money

  4. food

Answer:

d

Michael is busy with his work project that he brought home. His son wants him to put a movie in the DVD player. Michael tells him to wait 10 minutes; however, his son whines and complains so much that Michael decides to put the movie in right now. This be

  1. secondary reinforcement.

  2. positive reinforcement.

  3. erratic behavior.

  4. negative reinforcement.

Answer:

d

According to operant conditioning principles, which of the following would NOT be recommended when dealing with a young girl who is resistant to going to school every morning?

  1. Parents should ignore complaints or whining about school.

  2. Parents should express their anger by yelling at the girl.

  3. If the girl refuses to get in the car, parents should explain why this is a problem and use time-outs.

  4. Parents should reward the girl when she cooperates by getting into the car in the morning.

Answer:

b

Mirror neurons are found in the brain's ______________ and are believed to be the neural basis for:

  1. frontal lobe; observational learning.

  2. frontal lobe; classical conditioning.

  3. temporal lobe; observational learning.

  4. temporal lobe; operant conditioning.

Answer:

a

An empathic husband who observes his wife in pain will exhibit some of the same brain activity she is showing. This best illustrates the functioning of:

  1. cognitive maps.

  2. spontaneous recovery.

  3. the law of effect.

  4. mirror neurons.

Answer:

d

In Bandura's experiment, compared to children not exposed to the adult model, those who observed the model's aggressive outburst were ________________ to lash out at the doll.

  1. much more likely

  2. equally

  3. unable

  4. much less likely

Answer:

a

Long after her conditioned fear of dogs had been extinguished, Marcy experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when she first met her cousin's new cocker spaniel. Her unexpected nervousness best illustrates:

  1. latent learning.

  2. spontaneous recovery.

  3. shaping.

  4. delayed reinforcement.

Answer:

b

Most learning involves the process of association. With classical conditioning, an organism comes to associate:

  1. two stimuli.

  2. something observed and its consequences.

  3. a neutral stimulus and a reward.

  4. a response and its consequences.

Answer:

a