Language and nonverbal cues are both discrete. Some nonverbal cues are based on the community/culture, (ex. But some nonverbal cues mean the same all over (ex. A smile means happy or nice in almost all cultures.) They are different because language uses displacement (which is the ability to refer to things that are not present) and nonverbal cues can't use displacement because they can only refer to things that are present. The biggest difference between the two is how they are used to determine meaning. "Adults use nonverbal cues to determine meaning more than language". This is true because if the two contradict each other you use nonverbal cues to figure out what was really meant (ex. Saying I love you in a monotone voice contradicts itself and makes people thing you really didn't mean it, which shows nonverbal was used to determine the meaning over language. 1. Discrete cues that can be separated from each other. 2. Sometimes creates based on an agreement among the members of a society (e.g. the finger or the peace sign- smiling is the exception) 3. Do not involve displacement (cannot refer to things that are not present) 4. Differ from language in terms of their relative weight in determining meaning. - Generally adults rely more heavily on non verbal cues than verbal ones when determining meaning, especially when the two are inconsistent with each other. -What are the functions of nonverbal cues? Be able to describe each. 1. Repeat- nodding your head while saying "yes" 2. Contradict- saying, "I love you" in a flat tone 3. Substitute- shaking your head to mean "no" without saying it 4. Compliment- showing facial expressions while verbally expressing concern 5. Accent- Using hand movements to regulate conversation The functions are repeat, contradict, substitute, complement and accent parts of verbal messages and regulate flow of conversations. Nonverbal cues can repeat, contradict, substitute or compliment a verbal message. They can also accent parts of verbal messages and regulate the flow of conversations.
Ekman believes they are inherited and also thinks that culture has a large role on how the facial expressions of emotion are expressed. He believes in cultural display rules that are learned in our cultures and tell us when to and when not to express emotions. He also believes there are cultural decoding rules to help interpret others' emotions when they are displayed.
They belived that there was universality in the recognition of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise. They also thought that contempt could possibly be a 7th universal emotion and embarrassment as the 8th