During a typical morning, Colin will check the clock more frequently as the time for his regularly scheduled lunch break approaches. In this case, Colin's clock checking behavior is reinforced on a ________ schedule.

  1. variable-interval

  2. fixed-interval

  3. variable-ratio

  4. fixed-ratio



_______________________ involves any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response.

  1. Negative reinforcement

  2. Moderate reinforcement

  3. Neutral reinforcement

  4. Positive reinforcement



Classical conditioning focuses on ________________ behavior, whereas operant conditioning focuses on ________________ behavior.

  1. controllable; uncontrollable

  2. voluntary; involuntary

  3. hidden; observable

  4. respondent; operant



A guest will be spending time in your classroom. To make sure your students imitate this person's prosocial behaviors, you should pick a guest who the children think:

  1. is similar to them.

  2. is kind of average but works hard.

  3. is boring.

  4. is different from them.



Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children's behavior?

  1. Pavlov

  2. Bandura

  3. Watson

  4. Skinner



When a four-year-old girl suddenly picks up her ironing board and plays it like it is an electric guitar, it is likely that she has seen someone playing a real electric guitar in the same manner. Thus she has learned via:

  1. classical conditioning.

  2. operant conditioning.

  3. observation.

  4. neural networks.



Henry, a heavy smoker, is interested in quitting. Given what you know about the cognitive processes involved in classical conditioning, what is the most likely reason he still has trouble quitting after he is treated with a drug that induces nausea when h

  1. Reinforcement does not work as well as punishment.

  2. He realizes his nausea is due to the drug, not simply the cigarette.

  3. The nausea does NOT immediately follow his inhalation of the smoke.

  4. He is afraid of the side effects of the drug.



Findings from Garcia's research on taste aversion in rats indicate that:

  1. organisms do NOT have biological predispositions when learning associations.

  2. rats are more likely to develop aversions to taste than they are to sights or sounds.

  3. rats are more likely to develop aversions sights or sounds than they are to taste.

  4. the unconditioned stimulus (US) MUST immediately follow the conditioned stimulus (CS).



You repeatedly hear a tone just before having a puff of air directed into your eye. Blinking in response to a tone presented without a puff of air is a(n):

  1. conditioned stimulus (CS).

  2. unconditioned response (UR).

  3. unconditioned stimulus (US).

  4. conditioned response (CR).



Michael is busy with his work project that he brought home. His son wants him to put a movie in the DVD player. Michael tells him to wait 10 minutes; however, his son whines and complains so much that Michael decides to put the movie in right now. This be

  1. negative reinforcement.

  2. secondary reinforcement.

  3. erratic behavior.

  4. positive reinforcement.