Using different words for two very similar objects enables people to recognize conceptual distinctions between the objects. This illustrates

  1. telegraphic speech.

  2. linguistic determination.

  3. fixation.

  4. the representativeness heuristic.

Answer:

b

Although diagnosed with autism and hardly able to speak coherently, 18-year-old Andrew can produce intricate and detailed drawings of scenes he has viewed only once. Andrew illustrates a condition known as

  1. g factor.

  2. Down syndrome.

  3. emotional intelligence.

  4. savant syndrome.

Answer:

d

Superior performance on the Stanford-Binet most clearly corresponds with Sternberg's concept of

  1. analytical intelligence.

  2. emotional intelligence.

  3. creative intelligence.

  4. practical intelligence.

Answer:

a

The extent to which differences in intelligence among a group of people are attributable to genetic factors is known as the ______ of intelligence.

  1. standardization

  2. factor analysis

  3. predictive validity

  4. heritability

Answer:

d

Girls are likely to outperform boys in a

  1. spelling bee.

  2. math problem-solving test.

  3. computer-programming contest.

  4. chess tournament.

Answer:

a

The easier it is for people to remember an instance in which they were betrayed by a friend, the more they expect such an event to recur. This best illustrates the impact of

  1. framing.

  2. the representativeness heuristic.

  3. insight.

  4. the availability heuristic.

Answer:

d

Professor Chadwick evaluated a graduate student's research proposal negatively simply because he had heard a rumor about the student's incompetence. When later informed that the rumor had been patently false, the professor's assessment of the student's re

  1. the representativeness heuristic.

  2. the availability heuristic.

  3. belief perseverance.

  4. framing.

Answer:

c

Mary's bathroom scale always overstates people's actual weight by exactly six pounds. The scale has ________ reliability and ________ validity.

  1. low; high

  2. high; low

  3. low; low

  4. high; high

Answer:

b

The principles of learning emphasized by B. F. Skinner are most helpful in explaining why children

  1. generate sentences they have never heard.

  2. add new words to their vocabulary.

  3. develop language through a uniform sequence of stages.

  4. use mostly verbs rather than nouns when they first begin speaking.

Answer:

b

University students who focus on the interest and challenge of their schoolwork rather than on simply meeting deadlines and securing good grades are especially likely to demonstrate

  1. emotional intelligence.

  2. creativity.

  3. reliability.

  4. convergent thinking.

Answer:

c