Critics of B. F. Skinner were concerned that:

  1. he relied too heavily on animals to explain general learning principles.

  2. his research methods were flawed.

  3. he ignored the influence of stimulus-response associations.

  4. he dehumanized people because he ignored the existence of personal freedom and dignity.

Answer:

a

Critics of B. F. Skinner were concerned that:

  1. he relied too heavily on animals to explain general learning principles.

  2. his research methods were flawed.

  3. he ignored the influence of stimulus-response associations.

  4. he dehumanized people because he ignored the existence of personal freedom and dignity.

Answer:

d

The majority of correlational studies that have examined television violence and aggressive behavior suggest that the more hours children spend watching violent television shows, the more likely they are to exhibit aggressive behaviors. What is the major

  1. Girls were not included in these studies.

  2. They do not apply to elementary school-aged children.

  3. The studies don't take operant conditioning into account.

  4. Correlation does not prove causation.

Answer:

d

One chimpanzee watches a second chimp solve a puzzle for a food reward. The first chimp then imitates how the second chimp solved the puzzle. This best illustrates:

  1. spontaneous recovery.

  2. operant conditioning.

  3. observational learning.

  4. respondent behavior.

Answer:

c

"Johnny is ""hammering"" the nail in with his toy hammer as his father is hammering the deck boards. His behavior is a clear example of:"

  1. reinforced learning.

  2. observational conditioning.

  3. modeling.

  4. classical learning.

Answer:

c

In classical conditioning, this is the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.

  1. unconditioned response (UR)

  2. conditioned response (CR)

  3. neutral stimulus

  4. conditioned/neutral stimulus (CS)

Answer:

a

Jane had leukemia as a child and had to undergo numerous bouts of chemotherapy. She had associated the waiting room with nausea. Now 35 years old, she had to take her mother to the same hospital for breast cancer treatment. She became nauseous while in th

  1. latent learning.

  2. shaping.

  3. delayed reinforcement.

  4. spontaneous recovery.

Answer:

d

"Watson and Rayner taught ""Little Albert"" to fear white rats by:"

  1. negatively reinforcing Albert when he approached a rat.

  2. showing Albert a white rat and then punishing him when he touched it.

  3. repeatedly pairing a loud noise with the presentation of a white rat.

  4. showing Albert movies of children being bitten by rats.

Answer:

c

_______________________ involves any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.

  1. Positive reinforcement

  2. Neutral reinforcement

  3. Negative reinforcement

  4. Moderate reinforcement

Answer:

a

Matt regularly buckles his seatbelt simply because it turns off the car's irritating warning buzzer. This best illustrates the value of:

  1. spontaneous recovery.

  2. erratic behavior.

  3. secondary reinforcement.

  4. negative reinforcement.

Answer:

d