Chapter 1 New World Beginnings Advanced Placement United States History Review for Test Chapter 1 New World Beginnings 1. The European explorers who followed Columbus to North America continued to view themselves as European. 2. The colonists who ultimately embraced the vision of America as an independent nation had in common all of the following characteristics except an unwillingness to subjugate others. 3. The ideals that the colonists cherished as synonymous with American life included reverence for all of the following except opposition to slavery. 4. By the 1770s trade relations helped bring about a crisis of imperial authority. 5. The existence of a single original continent has been proved by the presence of the discovery of nearly identical species of fish in long-separated freshwater lakes of various continents. 6. The Appalachians mountain ranges was probably created before the continental separation approximately 350 million years ago. 7. The Grand Canyon was not a feature created in North America ten thousand years ago when the glaciers retreated. 8. The Great Ice Age accounted for the origins of North America's human history because it exposed a land bridge connecting Eurasia with North America. 9. Most likely the first Americans were people who crossed the land bridge from Eurasia to North America. 10. In 1492, when Europeans arrived in the Americas, the total of the two continents' populations was perhaps 54 million. 11. Some of the more advanced Native American cultures did all of the following except engage in significant ocean voyages of discovery. 12. The size and sophistication of native America civilizations in Mexico and South America can be attributed to the development of agriculture. 13. The crop that became the staple of life in Mexico and South America was corn. 14. Native American (Indian) civilization was least highly developed in North America. 15. One of the main factors that enabled Europeans to conquer native North Americans with relative ease was the absence of dense concentrations of population or complex nation-states in North America. 16. At the time of the European colonization of North America the number of Indian tribes was estimated at approximately 200. 17. The development of "three sister" farming on the southeast Atlantic seaboard produced a rich diet that led to high population densities. 18. Before the arrival of Columbus, most native peoples in North America lived in small, scattered, and impermanent settlements. 19. The Iroquois Confederacy was able to menace its Native American and European neighbors because of its military alliance, sustained by political and organizational skills. 20. Men in the more settled agricultural groups in North America performed all of the following except tending crops. 21. The early voyages of the Scandinavian seafarers did not result in permanent settlement in North America because no nation-state yearning to expand supported these ventures. 22. The Christian crusaders were indirectly responsible for the discovery of America because theybrought back news of valuable Far Eastern spices, drugs, and silk. 23. Europeans wanted to discover a new, shorter route to eastern Asia in order to a) break the hold that Muslim merchants had on trade with Asia b) reduce the price of goods from Asia c) gain more profits for themselves d) reduce the time it took to transport goods 24. Before the middle of the 15th century, sub-Saharan Africa had remained remote and mysterious to Europeans because sea travel down the African coast had been virtually impossible. 25. In the last half of the 15th century some forty thousand Americans were forced into slavery by Portugal and Spain to work on plantations on the Atlantic sugar islands. 26. The origins of the modern plantation system can be found in the Portuguese slave trade 27. Spain was united into a single nation-state when the African Moors were expelled from the Iberian Peninsula. 28. The stage was set for a cataclysmic shift in the course of history when a) Europeans clamored for more and cheaper products from Asia b) Africa was established as a source of slave labor c) the Portuguese demonstrated the feasibility of long range ocean navigation d) the Renaissance nurtured a spirit of optimism and adventure 29. In an effort to reach the Indies, Spain looked westward because Portugal controlled the African coast 30. After his first voyage, Christopher Columbus believed that he had sailed to the outskirts of the East Indies. 31. Columbus called the native people in the "New World" Indians because he believed that he had skirted the rime of the "Indies." 32. In the new interdependent global system that emerged after Columbus' discovery, the new world provided raw materials. 33. All of the following New World plants revolutionized the international economy a) maize b) potatoes c) beans d) tomatoes 34. The introduction of American plants around the world resulted in rapid population growth in Europe. 35. European contact with Native Americans led to the deaths of millions of Native Americans, who had little resistance to European diseases. 36. Within a century after Columbus' landfall in the New World, the Native American population was reduced by nearly 90 percent. 37. European explorers introduced smallpox into the New World. 38. The flood of precious metal from the New World to Europe resulted in the growth of capitalism. 39. The institution of encomienda allowed the European governments to give Indians to colonists if they promised to Christianize them. 40. Men became conquistadores because they wanted to a) gain God's favor by spreading Christianity b) escape dubious pasts c) seek adventure, as the heroes of classical antiquity had done d) satisfy their desire for gold 41. The Aztec chief Montezuma allowed Cortes to enter the capital of Tenochtitlan becauseMontezuma believed that Cortes was the god Quetzalcoatl. 42. Know the Following a. Coronado - New Mexico and Arizona b. Ponce de Leon-Florida c. Cortes - Mexico d. Pizarro - Peru e. Columbus - Caribbean islands 43. Spain began to fortify and settle its North American border lands in order to protect its Central and South American domains from encroachments by England and France. 44. As a result of Pope's Rebellion in 1680, the Pueblo Indians destroyed every Catholic church in the province of New Mexico. 45. The treatment of the Native Americans by the Spanish conquistadores can be described as a) at times brutal and exploitative.
Chapter 42: The American People Face a New Century
1. The U.S. pioneered the techniques of mass democracy. 2. Much of the world seems to emulate all of the following icons of American youth culture exceptHollywood stars. 3. The leading firm in the shift to the economy of mass consumerism was General Motors. 4. Occupations that the new communication tools threatened to wile out include all of the following except teachers. 5. During the past two decades, the gap between the rich and the poor in the United States widened. 6. The gap between the rich and the poor widened in the 1980s and 1990s for all of the following reasons except tax policies of the Carter and Clinton administrations. 7. The group most profoundly affected by the great economic changes of the late twentieth century was women. 8. By the 1900s, one of the most astonishing trends for women in the job market was the employment of mothers. 9. Despite numerous victories, feminists during the 1980s continued to be frustrated for all of these reasons except that women continued to be barred from holding high-level, high-prestige positions. 10. One reason that many women remained in low-skilled, low-prestige, and low-paying occupations was that they bore more of the burdens of parenthood than men. 11. By the 1990s the traditional family unit was disintegrating because the divorce rate had increased, the number of single-parent households had risen, parent-substitutes had assumed the role of child-rearing, and the family no longer served many of its traditional social functions. 12. By the 1990s, the trend for people living in poverty showed a decrease in poverty for those over age 65. 13. The money used to provide Social Security payments to retirees comes from Social Security taxes paid by current workers. 14. In terms of immigration patterns, the 1980s and 1990s witnessed the heaviest influx of immigrants in America's experience. 15. The New Immigrants of the 1980s and 1990s came to America primarily in search of jobs and economic opportunity. 16. The Hispanic immigrant population maintained their language and culture better than most previous immigrant groups because of their large numbers and geographic concentration. 17. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 attempted to penalize employers for hiring illegal immigrants. 18. By the 1990s, the foreign-born population accounted for (about 15) percent of the U.S.' population. 19. Studies show that illegal immigrants pay more dollars in taxes than they claim in welfare payments. 20. The most populous group of Latinos in the U.S. comes from Mexico. 21. The group with the highest household income is Asian-Americans. 22. Douglas Wilder was the first African-American to serve as astate governor. 23. One reason Black politicians became more successful by the 1990s is they appealed to a wide variety of voters. 24. Of the 2.5 million American Indians counted by the 2000 census, approximately (50 percent) lived away from the reservations in cities. 25. America's "urban age," when a majority of the population lived in cities rather than in rural areas, small towns, or suburbs, lasted from approximately 1920-1995. 26. The major racial disturbances of the 1990s occurred in Los Angeles. 27. One of the major problems affecting African-Americans in the late twentieth century was the growing gap between an affluent black middle class and the poor in inner cities. 28. The first significant numbers of Mexican-American immigrants to the U.S. came during the era of the Mexican Revolution, 1910-1920. 29. It was often considered a badge of honor to adopt American citizenship is not among the reasons that Mexican immigrants were for a long time slow to become American citizens. 30. The West became the subject of a rich literary outpouring because of the population shift westward. 31. After World War II, the art capital of the world was New York. 32. By the 1990s, the percentage of college students in the 25-34 age group was approximately 25 percent. 33. August Wilson was not among the notable African-American writers of the period since the 1930s. 34. Frank McCourt was not among prominent American playwrights or musical theater creators in the late 20th century. 35. The leading painting movement in the immediate post-World War II period was abstract expressionism. Posted by atwarwiththeworld at 9:33 PM 2 comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook Tuesday, April 24, 2012 Chapter 41: America Confronts the Post-Cold War Era 1. The Branch Davidians were a fundamentalist sect assaulted by the federal government. 2. In the 1992 national elections, Democratic candidate Bill Clinton campaigned as a "new Democrat" who proposed to move away from his party's traditional liberalism. 3. Relations with America's allies Germany and France were not among the areas where President Clinton's foreign policy stumbled in the first years of his presidency. 4. Two of Clinton's early political blunders occurred in the areas of gays in the military and health care. 5. A widespread public attitude of the early 1990s that affected many areas of politics and society was disillusionment and distrust of the federal government. 6. President Clinton aroused the hostility of liberals within his own party when he signed the Welfare Reform Bill. 7. After they gained control of both houses of Congress in the 1994 mid-term elections, the Republicans overreached with conservative policies that bred a backlash favoring President Clinton. 8. President Clinton's approach to the controversial policy of affirmative action was a plea to "mend it, not end it." 9. Bill Clinton's primary political advantage throughout his two terms of office was the tremendously prosperous economy. 10. Relations with America's allies Germany and France was not among the areas where President Clinton's foreign policy stumbled in the first years of his presidency. 11. President Clinton attempted to promote peace negotiations and better relations among all of the following except China and Taiwan. 12. The two articles of impeachment passed by the House of Representatives against President Clinton charged him with perjury and obstruction of justice. 13. President Clinton's primary political legacy was that he consolidated the Reagan-Bush revolution by encouraging reduced expectations of government. 14. One highly unusual issue in the 2000 presidential campaign between Al Gore and George W. Bush was how to spend the huge federal budget surpluses. 15. The Supreme Court's ruling prohibiting further recounting of Florida's votes and awarding the 2000 election to George W. Bush was based on a finding that Florida's inconsistent standards for evaluating ballots violated the equal protection clause of the Constitution. 16. In his campaign for the presidency in 2000, George W. Bush promised to bring reconciliation after the sharp partisan divisions of the Clinton years. 17. Appointing extreme conservatives to the Supreme Court was not among the polarizing conservative policies that George W. Bush pursued when he assumed the presidency. 18. The original hoe of Osama bin Ladin, the organizer of Al Qaeda and presumed organizer of the September 11 attacks was Saudi Arabia. 19. The new cabinet-level agency charged with protecting America against foreign terrorist attacks was the Department of Homeland Security. 20. The USA-Patriot Act provided for, among other things, the detention and deportation of immigrants suspected of terrorism. 21. To President George W. Bush, "the axis of evil" that menaced American security consisted of the nations of Iran, Iraq, and Libya. 22. Among Bush's advisors who pushed most strongly for the invasion of Iraq were Vice President Richard Cheney and administration "neoconservatives." 23. After ousting Saddam Hussein from power, the U.S. Military in Iraq was faced with violent resistance from Iraqi insurgents and foreign militants drawn to the country. 24. In two affirmative action cases involving the University of Michigan decided in 2003, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that numerical formulas for minority admission were unacceptable but flexible individually-based procedures were constitutional. 25. In 2003 California voters used the 100-year old procedure of (recall) to select a new governor, Arnold Schwarzenegger. 26. In June 2004, the United States handed over (political power and limited sovereignty) to the new interim government of Iraq. 27. The primary issue that enabled Bill Clinton to defeat President Bush and Ross Perot in the 1992 elections was Bush's management of a seriously slumping economy. 28. One of Bill Clinton's few early successes in advancing his reform agenda during his first term was the Brady gun control bill. 29. The leader of the right-wing movement that won a sweeping victory for Republicans in the 1994 Congressional elections was Newt Gingrich. 30. Facing a Republican Congress during his second term, Bill Clinton embraced more cautious and conservative policies, including notably his support for a welfare reform bill. 31. The Clinton foreign policy in Africa, the Balkans, and China was marked by great caution and a reluctance to engage American diplomatic or military power. 32. The two charges on which President Clinton was impeached and then acquitted after a Senate trial in January and February 1999 were perjury before a grand jury and obstruction of justice. 33. As President, Clinton's legacy would likely include consolidating the Reagan-Bush revolution of lowered expectations for government's ability to solve social ills. 34. The razor-thin election of 2000 between George W. Bush and Al Gore was finally resolved when the U.S. Supreme Court ended further vote recounts in Florida, giving Bush the electoral victory. Posted by atwarwiththeworld at 10:29 PM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook Chapter 40: The Resurgence of Conservatism
1. In the 1980 national elections, Edward Kennedy challenged incumbent President Carter for the nomination of the Democratic party. 2. Liberal Democrats complained that Jimmy Carter had removed regulatory controls from major industries. 3. Edward Kennedy's campaign to take the presidential nomination away from Jimmy Carter in 1980 was handicapped by lingering suspicions about his involvement in an automobile accident in which a young woman was killed. 4. The "new right" movement that helped to elect Ronald Reagan was spearheaded by evangelical Christians. 5. Many of the new right activists were most concerned about cultural or social issues. 6. Birth control was not a primary concern for the new right. 7. The neoconservatives of the 1980s believed in all of the following except du00e9tente with the Soviet Union. 8. Ronald Reagan was similar to Franklin D. Roosevelt in that both men championed the "common man" against vast, impersonal menaces. 9. Ronald Reagan differed from Franklin D. Roosevelt in that Roosevelt branded big business as the enemy of the common man, while Reagan depicted big government as the foe. 10. Ronald Reagan began to abandon his liberal New Deal political philosophy and to espouse a conservative, antigovernment line when he became a spokesman for General Electric. 11. The strong "tax revolt" against extensive government programs and spending was spurred by the passage of Proposition 13 in California. 12. Despite his failure in the White House, President Jimmy Carter earned widespread admiration in his post-presidential years for his humanitarian and human rights activities. 13. Ronald Reagan's essential domestic goal as president was to dismantle the welfare state and shrink the size of the federal government. 14. Ronald Reagan planned to reduce the size of government by shrinking the federal budget and lower taxes. 15. Conservative Democrats who helped Ronald Reagan to pass his budget and tax-cutting legislation were called boll weevils. 16. Besides cutting the federal budget, Reagan's other main domestic initiative when he took office was cut taxes by about 25 percent. 17. Ronald Reagan's "supply side" economic advisors assured him that the combination of budgetary discipline and tax reduction would do all of the following except produce a recession-proof economy. 18. The first results of Reagan's supply-side economics in 1982 was a sharp recession and rise in unemployment. 19. The term "yuppies" was slang applied to young people who volunteered for service in the inner city. 20. The immediate consequence of President Reagan's new economic policies was a deep though temporary economic recession. 21. In the 1980s, for the first time in the 20th century, income gaps widened between the richest and the poorest Americans. 22. One consequence of the record-high deficits and high interest rates of the 1980s was a soaring value for the dollar. 23. Some economists believe that the economic upturn in the 1980s was the result of massive military expenditures. 24. To President Reagan, "the focus of evil in the modern world" was the Soviet Union. 25. The first woman to receive the vice-presidential nomination of a major political party was Geraldine Ferraro. 26. For the Soviet Union's new policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) to work, it was essential that the Cold War end. 27. The Iran-contra investigations revealed Ronald Reagan as a president who napped through cabinet meetings. 28. The greatest increase in the national debt occurred during Ronald Reagan's eight years in office. 29. In 1986 Congress passed legislation mandating a balanced budget by 1991. 30. Ronald Reagan's highest political objective as president was the containment and then shrinkage of the welfare state. 31. The "new right" developed many of it tactical approaches by imitating the methods of the New Left. 32. The first woman appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court was Sandra Day O'Connor. 33. In response to China's crushing of its prodemocracy movement, the U.S. under George Bush maintained normal relations with China. 34. The Democrats' hopes for the 1988 election rose sharply because of major scandals in the Reagan administration involving the Iran-Contra affair and savings-and-loan banks. 35. "Solidarity" was a massive working-class labor union of Polish dissidents. 36. Israel badly strained its bonds of friendship with the U.S. by failing to protect American troops in Lebanon adequately. 37. In 1983 President Reagan sent U.S. marines to (Lebanon) as part of an international peacekeeping force; many of them died in a terrorist attack. 38. President Reagan came to be labeled the "Teflon president" because he seemed always to be able to avoid blame for failed policies. 39. During Reagan's presidency, U.S. troops invaded Grenada. 40. The issue that dominated Reagan's second term was foreign policy. 41. As one consequence of the demise of the Soviet Union, long-suppressed ethnic and racial hatreds flared in the former Soviet republics. 42. Modern conservatism springs from a disapproval of priorities and strategies from the Great society. 43. Seizing control of colleges and universities was not among the ways that the "New Right" of the 1980s imitated the tactics and approaches of the "New Left" of the 1960s. 44. The Supreme Court cases of Webster v. Reproductive Health Services and Planned Parenthood v. Casey permitted states to place restrictions on abortion. 45. Among the Democrats whom Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis defeated for the party's nomination to run against George Bush in 1988 were Gary Hart and Jesse Jackson. 46. In response to the collapse of the Soviet Union, President George H.W. Bush called for a "new world order" where democracies would reign supreme and diplomacy would replace weaponry. 47. The U.S. joined its allies in the Persian Gulf War in order to roll back Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. 48. The result of the Persian Gulf War was that Kuwait was liberated but Saddam Hussein stayed in power. 49. The explosive Senate hearings that nearly prevented Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas from being confirmed involved charges that Thomas was guilty of sexual harassment. Posted by atwarwiththeworld at 8:17 PM 1 comment: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook Sunday, April 22, 2012 Chapter 39: The Stalemated Seventies
1. One reason for the decline of American workers' productivity during the 1970s was the general shift in the economy from manufacturing to services. 2. By the early 1970s, the post-World War II economic boom had crested as a result of all of the following except the economic recovery of Japan and Germany. 3. The high inflation rate of the 1970s stemmed primarily from Lyndon Johnson's refusal to raise taxes for spending on social-welfare programs and the Vietnam War. 4. The Nixon Doctrine proclaimed that the U.S. would honor its existing defense commitment, but that in the future its allies would have to fight their own wars without large numbers of American troops. 5. Perhaps Nixon's most valuable asset as he began his presidency in 1969 was his expertise in foreign affairs. 6. President Nixon's policy of "Vietnamization" of the war in Vietnam called for a gradual handover of the ground war to the South Vietnamese. 7. Richard Nixon's Vietnam policy included all of the following except increased American troop commitments. 8. The American armed forces in Vietnam were composed largely of the least privileged young Americans. 9. The (26th) Amendment (lowered) the voting age to (18) 10. The Pentagon Papers, published in 1971, documented the North Vietnamese attack in the Gulf of Tonkin. 11. President Nixon's chief foreign-policy adviser was Henry Kissinger. 12. Richard Nixon's policy of du00e9tente ushered in an ear of relaxed tensions between the U.S. and the two leading communist powers, China and the Soviet Union. 13. The decisions of the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren reflected its deep concern for the individual. 14. In Griswold vs. Connecticut, the Supreme Court upheld a married couple's right to use contraceptives based on the right to privacy. 15. Critics of the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren complained that the Court was ignoring the Constitution in favor of its own social values. 16. When it came to welfare programs, Richard Nixon supported significant expansion in many areas. 17. Richard Nixon's Philadelphia Plan required construction trade unions to establish timetables and goals for hiring black apprentices. 18. The difference between Lyndon Johnson's affirmative action programs and those of Richard Nixon was that Johnson intended to help individuals, but Nixon conferred privileges on groups. 19. All of the following are legacies of Richard Nixon's presidency except the Food Stamp program. 20. To control creeping inflation in the early 1970s, President Nixon imposed a ninety-day wage-and-price freeze. 21. As president, Richard Nixon succeeded in implementing the Supplemental Security Income program. 22. George McGovern, the Democratic nominee for the presidency in 1972, alienated the traditional working-class backbone of the Democratic party by appealing to racial minorities, feminists, and youth. 23. George McGovern, the Democratic party's presidential nominee in 1972, appealed most strongly to the antiwar movement. 24. The Watergate scandals caused by the actions of Richard Nixon's staff in the 1972 presidential campaign involved all of the following except ballot stuffing. 25. As part of the cease-fire agreement in Vietnam in 1973, the U.S. was to withdraw all of its troops from Vietnam. 26. Vice President Spiro Agnew was forced to resign in 1973 after being accused of accepting bribes. 27. During the Senate Watergate hearings, one of the most damaging revelations for Richard Nixon was that his conversations in person and on the telephone had been recorded on tape. 28. The 1973 War Powers Act required the president to report to Congress any commitment American troops. 29. As a result of Richard Nixon's aerial bombing of neutral Cambodia in 1973, the Cambodian economy was ruined and its politics revolutionized. 30. As a result of U.S. support for Israel in 1973 when it was attacked by Egypt and Syria, Arab nations placed an embargo on oil to America. 31. In an effort to counter OPEC, the U.S. took the lead in forming the International Energy Agency. 32. Nixon tried to resist giving his taped conversations to the special prosecutor and the Congress by claiming that he had executive privilege (confidentiality). 33. The most controversial action of Gerald Ford's presidency was pardoning Nixon for any known or unknown crimes he had committed during the Nixon presidency. 34. The Helsinki accords, signed by Gerald Ford and leaders of thirty-four nations, pledge signatories to guarantee certain basic human rights. 35. The people of the U.S. had provided just about everything for South Vietnam except the will to win the war. 36. In the Vietnam conflict, the U.S. lost respect in the eyes of foreigners, confidence in its military prowess, economic power, and the war 37. The one major social movement born in the 1960s that regained and gathered momentum in the 1970s and after was the feminist movement. 38. Title IX was passed by Congress in 1972 to prohibit sex discrimination in any federally funded education program or activity. 39. The proposed Equal Rights Amendm