The new militancy and restlessness among many members of the African American community after 1945 was especially generated by

  1. the growing moral criticism of segregation by white church leaders.

  2. the gap between American ideals and racial practices revealed by World War II.

  3. the appointment of Thurgood Marshall, chief legal counsel of the NAACP, to the Supreme Court.

  4. Dwight Eisenhower's commitment to civil rights.

  5. the agitation of A. Philip Randolph.