In response to the launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union in 1957,

  1. Harry Truman condemned the Republicans for allowing a scientific gap to occur.

  2. the federal government began spending millions of dollars to improve American science and language education.

  3. the United States spent nearly a decade trying to equal this achievement.

  4. the Republican party took responsibility for the fact that the United States had fallen behind the Soviets in this area of scientific discovery.

  5. scientists blamed America's slowness on poor math and science education in the schools.