The Supreme Court began to advance the cause of civil rights in the 1950s because

  1. the Court was the only branch of government with the Constitutional authority to do so.

  2. the courts were dominated by New Deal liberals.

  3. President Eisenhower had requested the Court's assistance.

  4. Congress and the presidency had largely abdicated their responsibilities by keeping hands off the issue.

  5. the Constitution clearly prohibited any segregation.