In an effort to overturn Jim Crow laws and the segregated system that they had created, African Americans used all of the following methods except

  1. economic boycotts.

  2. legal attacks on underpinnings of segregation in the courts.

  3. appeals to foreign governments to pressure the United States to establish racial justice.

  4. mobilization of black churches on behalf of black rights.

  5. use of the nonviolent tactics of Mohandas Gandhi.