All of the following gave rise to a more dynamic, market-oriented, national economy in early nineteenth-century America except

  1. the push west in search of cheap land.

  2. government regulation of all major economic industry.

  3. a vast number of European immigrants settling in the cities.

  4. newly invented machinery.

  5. better roads, faster steamboats, further-reaching canals, and tentacle-stretching railroads.