After participants in one study were informed that a videotaped interviewee was a psychiatric patient, they characterized the person with phrases such as "a passive type" and "frightened of his own impulses." This study best illustrated the

  1. value of a psychoanalytic perspective.

  2. dangers of dissociative identity disorder.

  3. unreliability of the DSM-IV.

  4. biasing power of diagnostic labels.

  5. shortcomings of the social-cognitive perspective.